Happy New Year, MS 88! As we prepare for an exciting year of more spectacular science, we must first reflect back on all of the things we learned in 2013. Complete the survey below. You will only be graded for participation, not for correctness. When you finish, you may spend some time editing your lab reports and power points.
Dear Class 711, 714, 715, and 716,
Below is a description of your holiday homework.
A complete lab report on YOUR scientific investigation:
A complete power point presentation on YOUR scientific investigation:
If you need help writing a specific part of the lab report, make sure to consult shonscience.com. There is blog post on writing pretty much every component excluding the introduction.
I hope you all have a restful and FUN break! Make sure to contact me (email@example.com) if you have any questions.
A scientific conclusion is the final claim of the scientist made upon analyzing the experimental data (evidence). Unlike a hypothesis (tentative claim of the scientist), the conclusion is a claim that has been tested.
A scientific conclusion has 2 parts/paragraphs:
I. Scientific Explanation (CER)
¶ 1 Scientific Explanation (C.E.R.)
¶ 2 Reflection/Evaluation
Limitations are parts of an experiment that keep the scientist from producing fair and reliable data. Even a very well planned out experimental procedure can lead to "mistakes" and produce less than perfect data. As scientists, it is important that upon completing an experiment, that we reflect on all possible limitations that may have influenced our data. These limitations should be included in the scientist's conclusion.
Below are the four categories of possible limitations in science that can keep the scientist from producing "perfect" data:
Identify one type of limitation in each experiment (questions 1-3) that you think will most affect the reliability of the data. Make sure to explain why you chose the particular limitation. YOU DO NOT NEED TO WRITE THE QUESTIONS.
1. Ashik filled 3 pots with EcoScraps soil and labeled them A, B, and C. He then placed 1 radish seed in the middle of each pot. Ted added 1 teaspoon of fertilizer to pot A, put 2 teaspoons in pot B, and no fertilizer in pot C. After using a different amount of fertilizer in each pot, he placed pot A on a sunny windowsill, pot B on a shady windowsill, and pot C in a dark closet. Ashik watered each plant with a ½ a cup of water every day. As he measured each plant throughout the month, Ashik wrote the height of the plant (in centimeters) in his data table for trial one. Ashik repeated the same experiment for trial 2 and trial 3. Identify one limitation in Ashik's experiment.
2. Paula wanted to find out if the type of soda (diet coke vs. regular coke) affected the time it takes to "go flat" (lose carbonation). She figured the best way to determine when the soda went flat was by tasting the sodas every 30 minutes. For each trial, Paula set a timer for 30 minutes, then tasted the diet coke first, immediately followed by the regular coke. She recorded whether or not the soda was flat after each taste test. She performed a total of 5 trials. Identify one limitation in Paula's experiment.
3. Rashonne wanted to find out what color Crayola marker (red, yellow, green, orange, blue, purple) dries out the fastest. She purchased one box of markers and set out all 6 colors on a flat surface in the same location with the same temperature, where each marker received an equal amount of sunlight. She removed the caps and checked them twice a day to record the time for each marker to dry. Identify one limitation in Rashonne's experiment.
4. True or False: "If a procedure is very well planned out, then there will be no mistakes in the data." Explain your choice.
An experimental procedure is a detailed, step-by-step "recipe" for conducting a scientific investigation. A strong experimental procedure is so detailed and complete that any other scientist can replicate the experiment and results.
Each time an experiment is repeated is called a trial. In order to gather reliable, fair data from experimentation, we must always perform multiple trials (at least 3) for every experiment.
If you have struggled to write a strong experimental procedure, you are not alone. Writing a procedure for making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich or drawing a simple smiley face can even be tricky!
Check out Ms. Shon's "Pocket Guide for Writing a Procedure" to help you edit your procedure to make sure that any other scientist is able to replicate your experiment and results.
Ms. Shon's Pocket Guide for Writing a Procedure
When writing a procedure, you should....
Variety of Verbs
Pull from the list of verbs below to improve your experimental procedure!
Due Tuesday, December 17, 2013.
1. Copy Ms. Shon's pocket guide for writing a procedure in your science notebook.
2. Edit your experimental procedure using the guide (SNVP) above. Write them in your science notebook.
Review for Quiz #2 by playing Jeopardy. Click the link to begin: Quiz #2 Review Jeopardy
Answer the questions below to review for the quiz on Friday (December 6, 2013). If you can answer the questions in your own words (without copying a definition), you are probably in great shape. Feel free to use your notes, neighbors, and past blog posts to help you prepare. Focus on the following blog posts to help you review: Parts of a Controlled Experiment, Scientific Questions = Testable Questions, What is a Hypothesis?, Writing a Hypothesis, Types of Scientific Investigations.
1. What is a controlled experiment?
2. What is an independent variable?
3. Why is there only one independent variable in every controlled experiment?
4. What is a dependent variable?
5. What are constants?
6. Do all experiments have control groups? Explain.
1. What is a testable question?
2. What must be in every testable question?
3. Write 2 testable question formats.
1. What is a hypothesis?
2. What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?
3. Write the format for writing a hypothesis.
1. Why is it important to be specific when writing your experimental procedures?
2. Should any scientist be able to repeat an experimental procedure and get the same results? Explain.
3. How is sketching/drawing out the steps in your experimental procedure helpful? Explain.
Types of Scientific Investigations
1. What is a field investigation?
2. What is a secondary research investigation?
3. What is a design investigation?
4. What type of investigation are we designing in science class?
Developing a Hypothesis
Case Study: "What is the effect of the packaging of Oreo cookies on how many calories people actually consume (eat)?"
How do you write a hypothesis? Let's learn by making a prediction for the example testable question, "What is the effect of the packaging of Oreo cookies on how many calories people actually consume (eat)?".
We must first think about our "B.O.P." (background research, observations, and prior knowledge) to help us make our prediction. Below is an example list of my observations and prior knowledge on Oreos. Your list may very will vary from mine.
Observations and Prior Knowledge:
A good place to start background research is by going to the official (Nabisco) Oreo website. Here is some important information I gathered from the Oreo website:
After looking at the Oreo website, I then did a Google search to find any related studies on how packaging affects how many calories people consume (basically, how much people eat). Ms. Abounader will be teaching you neat tricks on how to search for the more reliable sources.
Below is important background research I gathered from different (reliable) sites from my Google search.
Now that we have our list of observations, prior knowledge, and background research, we can write a hypothesis!
Writing a Hypothesis
In addition to including your background research, observations, and prior knowledge, scientists always include an independent variable (IV) and dependent variable (DV) in their hypotheses (like they do in their testable questions). Below is the format scientists use to write a hypothesis.
“If ____________________________[insert IV / cause]___________________________________ ,
then __________________________[insert DV / effect]__________________________________ _,
because __[insert reasoning based on your background research, observations, and prior knowledge].”
We will be using this format to write hypotheses throughout the school year before conducting any experiment.
Below is an example of my tentative claim (hypothesis), based on my observations, prior knowledge, and background research:
"If Oreo cookies are packaged and offered to people in different sizes,
then people will eat more calories when offered Oreo cookies in larger packages,
because finishing a package signals people to stop eating. According to a study in "Do Increased Portion Sizes Affect How Much We Eat?" published by the CDC, not only do people tend to eat more than the recommended serving size on snack labels, but people also tend to eat more calories when given bigger portions."
Write the questions below and answer in complete sentences in your science notebook.
1. What is B.O.P.?
2. If your testable question involves investigating iPhones, what would be a good website to start your background research?
3. Pick 3 of the testable questions below and write a hypothesis for each of the 3 questions in your science notebook. Pick questions different from the one you had in class!
4. Write a hypothesis for YOUR testable question. Make sure to include background research!
What is a Hypothesis?
As we move forward with our individual science investigations, we need to look back to Dr. OPHERC before we take our next "step" in the scientific method. So far, we have made observations (O) about topics that interest us (cookies, baseball, Call of Duty 4, nail polish, skateboards, etc.), and have developed testable questions (P - problem/question) for our own scientific investigations. Therefore, our next step is to make and write a hypothesis (H) so that we can move on with our experiments (E)!
People tend to describe a hypothesis as "an educated guess". However, as scientists, a hypothesis is much more than that. A hypothesis is the predicted answer to the scientist's testable scientific question, based on observations, prior knowledge, and background research. In the next blog post, we will learn how to include our "observations, prior knowledge, and background research" in our written hypotheses. **FYI: hypotheses is the plural form of hypothesis = hypotheses is more than one hypothesis**
Another way to think about a hypothesis is in the context of a scientific explanation (C.E.R.). A hypothesis is the tentative claim of the scientist. But what does tentative mean? Tentative describes something that is not fully worked out or tested. In other words, when something is tentative, there is still a degree of uncertainty. Therefore, before we develop our scientific explanations, we need to test our hypotheses through experimentation to gather evidence (data) to make our claim much more certain, and most importantly, tested.
Theory vs. Hypothesis
Earlier this year, we learned that a theory and hypothesis are two very different things. A theory is a essentially a hypothesis that has been tested and proven (time after time) by many scientists over many generations. Think of a theory as a highly "confident claim" (unlike the "tentative claim" that describes a hypothesis). Check out the rap video called "Theory vs. Hypothesis" by Coma Niddy on You Tube (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R56gU1-Nmgg) for homework to help you better understand the difference between a theory and a hypothesis. You will need to watch the video to complete the assignment at the bottom.
Observations, Prior Knowledge, Background Research
Below is a quick summary of the "observations, prior knowledge, and background research" on which we base our hypotheses.
Pandora = Productive?
Let's use my experiment on the topic "Pandora and Work Productivity" to help us understand how to use our observations, prior knowledge, and background research to develop a hypothesis. As a reminder, the testable question I plan to address through my controlled investigation is, "How does listening to Pandora while doing work on shonscience.com affect work productivity (the amount of work completed in the same amount of time)?"
Observations: What have I observed about my topic?
Prior Knowledge: What do I already know about my topic?
Background Research: What new information about my topic did I find?
Now that I have my observations, prior knowledge, and background research outlined, I am equipped to make a hypothesis! In the next blog post, we will learn how to incorporate these things into the actual written hypothesis.
Write the questions below and answer them in your science notebook in complete sentences.
1. What is a hypothesis?
2. What does tentative mean?
3. What is the relationship between a hypothesis and hypotheses?
4. What is the difference between a theory and a hypothesis?
5. What three things are needed to develop a hypothesis?
6. How does "background research" help a scientist to develop a stronger prediction (hypothesis)?
7. How is background research also like a mini "secondary research investigation"? Explain.
8. Can your personal experiences be used to develop a hypothesis? Explain.
9. What is your hypothesis for Ms. Shon's Pandora experiment?
10. According to the video, what is one example of a theory?
11. According to the video, can theories change (be modified)?
12. According to the video, is "dark matter" a theory or hypothesis? Explain.
1. What are the four types of scientific investigations?
The four types of scientific investigations are controlled investigations, field investigations, design investigations, and secondary research investigations.
2. Why are controlled investigations/experiments usually conducted indoors?
Controlled investigations/experiments are usually conducted indoors because the scientist must control the environmental conditions, such as the temperature, humidity, amount of light, amount of noise, materials, etc.
3. How is a field investigation like a controlled investigation?
A field investigation is like a controlled investigation in that both investigations, the scientist chooses to observe and measure how one change (IV) has a measurable effect (DV) on something else.
4. How is a field investigation different from controlled investigation?
The key difference between a field investigation and a controlled investigation is that the scientist does not change anything in the environment in a field investigation, but rather, gathers data on the conditions or situations that already exist.
5. What is a design investigation?
A design investigation is an experiment in which the scientist changes the design of something (IV) in order to create the effect desired (by the scientist).
6. Can a secondary research investigation use data from different sources? Explain.
Yes, a secondary research investigation can use data from different sources. The data that is used can come from the internet, in print, or other sources.
7. What is the major advantage to a secondary research investigation?
The major advantage to a secondary research investigation is that the scientist can take advantage of very large data sets that have been gathered over many years or over very large areas. Therefore, the scientist can study long-term cause and effect relationships.
8. Jason wants to find out if the members on his soccer team who wear cleats during a game kick the ball further than those who do not wear cleats. What type of investigation will Jason conduct? Explain.
Jason will conduct a field investigation. Jason will observe and measure how one change (IV) has a measurable effect (DV) on something else. However, Jason does not change anything in the environment (he has no control over the the other actions/choices/behaviors of the team), but rather, gathers data on the conditions or situations that already exist.
9. Brandon wants to find out what type of video game console heats up to a higher temperature. Brandon will use the exact same game in each console and will play for the exact same amount of time in the same room. What type of investigation will Brandon conduct? Explain.
Brandon will conduct a controlled experiment. In order to have a fair test, Brandon needs to make sure to control the environmental conditions, such as the temperature of the room before the test, the game being used, the individuals playing the game, the amount of time playing the game, etc.
10. Jennifer wants to know if the amount of sleep people receive over a lifetime has an effect on how long they live. What type of investigation will Jennifer conduct? Explain.
Jennifer will conduct a secondary research investigation. She will use data that have been collected by other scientists over the lifetime of many different individuals to answer her question. Since this is a long-term study, Jennifer cannot simply use data from a controlled experiment.
11. Alec wants to find out how the circumference of his skateboard wheels affects his speed. Alec tests out three different wheel sizes. What type of investigation will Alec conduct? Explain.
Alec will conduct a design investigation. He is changing the design of something (IV) in order to create an effect desired (to go faster).
12. Ms. Shon wants to know if the amount of rainfall has an effect on the number of roses that grow on her rose bush. What type of investigation will Ms. Shon conduct? Explain.
Ms. Shon will conduct a field investigation. She will observe and measure how one change (IV) has a measurable effect (DV) on something else. However, Ms. Shon does not change anything in the environment (she has no control over the amount of rainfall), but rather, gathers data on the conditions or situations that already exist.