1907 - 1964
Rachel Carson was an American conservationist and marine biologist who is best known for advancing the modern global environmental movement. Her controversial book, Silent Spring, brought attention to the dangerous effects she believed were caused by the use of synthetic pesticides. The book ultimately inspired a nationwide ban on DDT and other pesticides, and the creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
1809 - 1882
Charles Darwin was a British naturalist who proposed the theory of evolution based on natural selection. Natural selection is the process in which the stronger organisms survive to reproduce and pass on their traits (genes), while the weaker do not. Darwin spent five years at sea on the HMS Beagle (boat), where he observed an incredible diversity of animal and plant species. When the Beagle reached the Galápagos Islands, he noticed that each species was uniquely adapted to its immediate environment. This observation led him to ask the questions that became the basis of his scientific explanation: living things have evolved in an orderly manner over many generations, and continue to evolve today. After 23 years of study, he published his theory of evolution in The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.
1635 - 1703
Robert Hooke was an English physicist and inventor. Hooke proved that both combustion (burning) and respiration (breathing) require air, and that sound does not travel in a vacuum. He was one of the first men to build a Gregorian reflecting telescope and to suggest that Jupiter rotates on its access. Hooke also studied numerous objects under microscopes and was the first to use the word cell to describe the patterns he observed.
1707 - 1778
Carl Linnaeus was a Swedish naturalist who developed the modern classification system for naming plants and animals. This classification system is called binomial nomenclature, which consts of two words, the first being the genus and the second the species. For example, Homo sapiens, the scientific name of the human, is an example of binomial nomenclature. His method of classification allowed for clear and easy descriptions of plants, animals and minerals.
1822 - 1895
Louis Pasteur was a French chemist who founded modern microbiology. Pasteur established that germs cause diseases and infections. Before Pasteur, people believed that diseases were generated spontaneously. However, Pasteur's experiments proved that microorganisms are the true cause of many diseases.
His early work with fermentation led him to invent to process of pasteurization. He developed vaccines for anthrax, chicken cholera, and rabies.
(1928 - ) & (1916 - 2004)
James Watson (American) & Francis Crick (British) are biologists who identified the structure of Deoxyribonucleic Acid, otherwise known as DNA. By analyzing the patterns cast by x-rays striking DNA molecules, they discovered that DNA has the structure of a double helix, two spirals linked together by bases in ladder-like rungs. Their discovery formed the basis of molecular genetics. By understanding the structure of DNA, we better understand ourselves and our families through the study of hereditary disease, and the evolution of human life.
Become experts on your team's great scientist! Read the biographies/articles and watch the videos. Make sure to take notes. Then answer the below questions in your science notebook.
- From where is your scientist?
- What did your scientist discover/find/advance?
- How did your scientist make that discovery?
- How has your scientists' discovery changed our world?