I: Roll, Pitch, and Yaw
Roll, pitch, and yaw are the three types of motion on a plane. A change in any one of the three types of motion affects the other two.
Check out the interactive image of the ailerons, elevator, and rudder of a plane here:
The camber of an airfoil is the characteristic curve of its upper or lower surface (see below). The camber determines the airfoil's thickness. But, more importantly, the camber determines the amount of lift that a wing produces as air flows around it. A high-speed, low-lift airfoil has very little camber. A low-speed, high-lift airfoil, like that on the Cessna 150, has a very pronounced (curved) camber.
You may also encounter the terms upper camber and lower camber. Upper camber refers to the curve of the upper surface of the airfoil, while lower camber refers to the curve of the lower surface of the airfoil. In the great majority of airfoils, upper and lower cambers differ from one another.
II: Controlling Roll, Pitch, and Yaw
The ailerons, elevator, and rudder control the movement of a plane. These are called the "control surfaces" because they are surfaces that control the movement of a plane!
Read the blog post above, watch the videos, and explore the interactive websites (links). Then answer the questions below. Make sure to write the question and answer in complete sentences to receive full credit. There is an extra credit opportunity below!
Due Monday, June 9, 2014
Part I & II
1. What type of plane motion (roll, pitch, or yaw) occurs when a plane takes off and lands?
2. What type of plane motion (roll, pitch, or yaw) occurs when a plane makes a left or right turn in the air?
3. Where are the ailerons of a plane located?
4. What is the function of the ailerons?
5. Where is the elevator of the plane located?
6. What is the function of the elevator (on a plane)?
7. Where are the rudders of a plane located?
8. What is the function of the rudders?
1. What is camber?
2. What is the difference between upper camber and lower camber?
3. A high-speed, low-lift airfoil has very __________________ camber.
4. A low-speed, high-lift airfoil, like that on the Cessna 150, has a very ________________ camber.
5. Sketch the upper and lower camber line of an airfoil.
Part IV: Explore the website on wing design and answer the questions that follow:
1. What two forces combine to create lift?
2. An airfoil also creates lift by __________________ or redirecting airflow.
3. The amount of drag depends on an object's _________________ and _____________.
4. What will have more drag: a) monster truck; b) sports car
5. A __________________ surface causes more drag than a smooth, polished one.
6. A fighter jet has low lift and low drag. What about its wing shape gives it these properties?
7. How does the airfoil of the crop duster compare to the wing of the fighter jet?
Click on the link below to find the best lift to drag ratio (L/D) for different planes by adjusting their angle of attack and air speed. Then answer the questions below.
1. Why do you think a higher lift to drag ratio (L/D) is a major goal in wing design?
2. In order to achieve the best lift to drag ratio (L/D) for the Bleriot airfoil, what is the angle of attack and airspeed needed?
3. In order to achieve the best lift to drag ratio (L/D) for the DC-3 airfoil, what is the angle of attack and airspeed needed?
4. In order to achieve the best lift to drag ratio (L/D) for the 757 airfoil, what is the angle of attack and airspeed needed?